Varieties of Grape Used in Winemaking
Needless to say, grape is an important ingredient used in winemaking as the beverage is made by fermenting either the fresh grapes or the juice of the fruit. Common variety of grape used in winemaking would be the Vitis vinifera of the European variant. This includes Merlot, Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot noir. Varietal wine is produced when one of these grape varieties is used as the predominant component (at least 75%-85%). Anything less results in blended wine, which are not inferior to the varietal one, only presented as another kind of wine made through a different winemaking style.
Other hybrids can also be used to make wine. These hybrids are created by crossing two species genetically. V. labrusca, V. aestivalis, V. ruprestris, V. rotundifolia, and V. riparia are native to North America, which can be used in winemaking occasionally. Hybridization and grafting are two different things. In most vineyards in the world, vines of European Vitis vinifera are grafted onto the rootstock of the North American species. This is a common practice that has been around for a long time as the North American species are more resistant to a root louse that can kill the vine called phylloxera. The insect was also the culprit for vine deaths in most European vineyards in the late 19th century.
In winemaking, the concept of terroir becomes an important thing. The concept revolves around the varieties of grapes, the vineyard’s shape and elevation, the soil’s type and chemistry, seasons and climate, and the cultures of the yeast used. Any difference of combination in these factors would lead to a wide range of different wines as they may affect the fermentation process, finishing, and aging of the wine. While wineries from make attempt to apply methods that will both accentuate and preserve the aroma and the taste, makers of table wine typically employ methods to keep every one of their bottles consistent by resorting to spinning cones, thin-film evaporation, cross-flow filtration, tannin filtration, and micro-oxygenation.