When it comes to the storage of wine, there are three things that affect a wine’s quality: light, humidity, and temperature. Light (especially strong direct sunlight and incandescent light) reacts badly with the phenolic composition of wine and may fault the wine. White wines that are delicate and light-bodied are more susceptible to light exposure. It is because of this that wine bottles are often designed with darkly tinted color. Wines that are more vulnerable to light are those stored in bottles of color blue, green, and clear. To counter this effect, some wine producers implement cellophane wrap to protect their wine against the harmful effects of light.
To prevent the wine from drying out, cork enclosures are applied to allow for some degree of humidity to get in. However excessive humidity may damage the labels on the bottles, making it hard to identify the wine and affect value of resale. At least 75% humidity is required, according to wine experts although this claim has yet to have scientific basis. It is also advised that wine bottles are not to be stored in refrigerators. The refrigeration process would dehumidify the bottle and dry the cork out, making it susceptible to oxygen exposure.
Changes in temperature affect wine tremendously. This makes it important to keep temperature in check when stored. Exposure to high temperature (more than 25 degree Celsius) for a long time will spoil the wine, resulting in wine that tastes like raisin and stewed. Some wines can withstand high temperature better than others that are more delicate. Wine can freeze if exposed to low temperature for a long time. The wine will expands as it solidifies and pushes outward, causing the cork to pop out and the bottle to crack. Once there is a crack on the bottle, oxygen can seep through, oxidizing it.